達人專欄(三)

達人專欄(三)

能量果膠知多少?What do you know about Energy Gel?

能量果膠是一種膠狀的碳水化合物 , 在運動中可提供能量,以及運動後促進恢復 . 常用於耐力型的運動,如路跑,自行車,和鐵人三項運動以及喜愛爬山的登山者等。

能量果膠也被稱為耐力運動能量果膠,運動能量果膠,或營養能量果膠,以及碳水化合物能量果膠。較常見到的包裝,也是一般選手習慣的包裝,是俗稱立體枕頭包,以雀巢的 Power Gel 為代表。一手可以掌握,易於攜帶,同時也可單手開。每一個包裝都是設計成在頂部有一個凸出區塊,並有撕裂線,可以輕鬆撕開,很容易喝到內容物的果膠。

補充完果膠後,果膠中的碳水化合物被吸收到血液中,有助於延緩肌肉疲勞,提高血糖濃度,能供給熱量和營養做為運動時的動力來源。大部分的能量果膠並不包含脂肪,纖維或蛋白質,因此他們能夠迅速被消化。能量果膠主要含有醣類和麥芽糊精,有點類似不帶水分的運動飲料。有一些還添加了電解質,如e-Gel,也有些會添加其他的元素,如人參,氨基酸,維生素和輔酶Q10的凝膠。咖啡因有時也被使用在某些能量果膠上。比較常見的美國能量果膠有GU,POWER-GEL,以及 Clif Shot。在國內可以生產立體枕頭包能量果膠的,目前僅有 RacingPro 運動達人,以及千沛兩家廠商。

要特別注意的是,由於法令規定的不同,美國能量果膠產品所允許的防腐劑添加量,是台灣的兩倍,因此前一陣子就發生有GU在通關檢驗被驗出超標而退貨的情況。

台灣與日本及韓國在防腐劑的添加標準是一致的,也就是只有美國的一半,所以為了日本與韓國市場,雀巢特地在日本設了一條生產線,生產合乎兩國防腐劑標準的產品供應日韓市場,日本雀巢的能量果膠產品目前尚未引進台灣。

不過話又說回來,為什麼市售的能量果膠需要添加防腐劑?

這是由於食品生產滅菌要求使然,要做到產品無菌的要求,在滅菌的過程一般都會使用 121 度高溫高壓 30 分鐘,在這麼高的溫度條件下,一般的鋁箔袋在滅菌過程還沒完成時,包裝鋁箔袋應該就變形了,能通過這種高溫條件殺菌的鋁袋並不是沒有,但價格會變很高,一般廠商基於成本考量,都不願意在包材上做投資,因此添加防腐劑成了唯一的選項。

苯甲酸鉀(Potassium Benzoate) & 己二烯酸鉀(山梨酸鉀 Potassium Sorbate) 這兩種有機防腐劑較常被使用,苯甲酸進入人體後,大部分在9-15小時內,可與甘氨酸作用生成馬尿酸,從尿中排出,剩餘部分與葡萄糖化合而解毒,符合國家要求標準者。山梨酸、山梨酸鉀人體正常的新陳代謝,易被分解為二氧化碳和水排出體外,也符合標準者,對人體無害,在動物實驗上,證實山梨酸並沒有致畸胎的遺傳毒性及致癌毒性存在。不過為了健康,還是不建議大量使用添加防腐劑的調理食品,所以消費者必須注意的重點是,市售的能量果膠包裝,如果無法用 121 度高溫 30分鐘煮沸滅菌時,卻號稱無添加防腐劑,這個產品就要特別注意了。

在基本配方上,雖然各家都大同小異,也就是以單醣類做為能量供應的基本來源。但是由於製造商為了要選手有飽足感,一般都會添加增稠劑,也就是俗稱的修飾性澱粉。前一陣子才鬧得沸沸揚揚的食品添加劑就是這個東西。分辨的辦法,就是詳閱產品成分,如果成分中有添加明膠,三仙膠或關華豆膠…等,這些都是提煉自豬皮或豬骨,屬修飾性澱粉的一種,並不適合素食者食用。
我們的增稠劑是使用羧甲基纖維素(英文:Carboxymethyl Cellulose,簡稱CMC),是提煉自植物的天然增稠劑,是可以讓選手在練習或賽事時可以使用的全素食能量果膠。所以素食者在選擇果膠時,也必須注意該品牌增稠劑的使用種類,包裝上如果沒有標示使用增稠劑的種類時,建議素食者還是不要購買,避免吃到豬骨提煉的明膠。

推薦使用的能量果膠是賽前15分鐘,和賽事中每30-45分鐘使用。運動前 15分種引用的第一包能量果膠, 有時可以用高碳水化合物的零食取代。然後在運動過程中每隔30-45分鐘使用一包。建議使用時應搭配飲水,以避免脫水的危險(因為食用高醣份的果膠會改變您身體的滲透壓導致脫水)。每一個運動員使用能量果膠會有不同 , 這取決於運動員本身的代謝,體重,及身體健康的程度。

最簡單的計算公式,你/妳在賽事中,需要補充多少的能量果膠或其他碳水化合物 ? 最簡單的計算公式就是依你的體重做標準,每一公斤的體重在每一小時必須補充 1 公克的碳水化合物,假設你的體重是 60 公斤,你在持久型的賽事中,必須每小時補充 60 公克的碳水化合物,也就是 240 大卡的熱量(60 公克 x 4 = 240 大卡),這是選手們最簡單的計算公式,好記又不求人,這樣你就知道自己在賽事中需要補多少熱量了。


Energy gels are carbohydrate gels that provide energy for exercise and promote recovery,commonly used in endurance events such as running, cycling, and triathlons plus mountain climbers. Energy gels are also referred to as endurance gels, sports gels, nutritional gels, and carbohydrate gels. The most popular packaging that players accustomed to is called as three-dimensional pillow packs. Nestle’s Power Gel is the represent active package. This kind of package is easy to carry by players. And most important is can be handled by only one hand. They come in small, single-serve plastic packets. Each packet has a strip with a small notch at the top that can be peeled off to reveal an opening through which the gel can be consumed.

Once consumed, the carbohydrates found in the gels are absorbed into the blood to supply the body with calories and nutrients to fuel exercise activity by helping to delay muscular fatigue, raise blood sugar levels, and enhance performance. Most energy gels have no fat, fiber, or protein, so they can be digested quickly. They contain mainly sugars and malt odextrins, which make them similar to sports drinks without the water. Some gels, such as e-Gel, also come with added electrolytes. There are also gels with extras such as ginseng and other herbs, amino acids, vitamins, and Co enzyme Q10. Caffeine can be found in some gels as well. Examples of common energy gels are GU, Power- Gel, and Clif Shot. More common American energy gel products are GU, POWER GEL, and Clif Shot. While there are only 2 manufacturers in Taiwan can produce same products with same package. These 2 manufacturers are RacingPro and Centuple.

But please pay special attention, due to each country FDA’s different laws and regulations, the U.S. FDA authorities allowed preservatives amount to be added is twice that of Taiwan. It happened a while ago in GU clearance inspection were found to have exceeded and forced to ship back. In Taiwan, Japan and South Korea the preservatives added standard is the same, which is only half of the U.S. In order to marketing energy gel to Japan and Korea market. Nestle specially set up in Japan, a production line, produce the products according to preservatives standard and then supply Japanese and Korean markets. So far Japan Nestle energy gel is still not yet introduced to Taiwan.

But then again, why most energy gel need to add preservatives? This is due to food production sterilization requirement. To do product sterilization which requires products to go through 130-degree boiling water boil for 10 minutes. Under such a high temperature condition, the general foil bag during the sterilization process will be on the deformation. Those alumn. foil bag which can passed high temperature sterilization normally is very thick and hard to tear to open. Hard bags are not easy to carry and not suitable for the race events. Plus hard bags are very easy to cut racer’s mouth during the race. Therefore it became the only option to add preservatives, benzoic acid and potassium (Potassium Benzoate) & hexadiene potassium (Potassium Sorbate) these are two organic preservative often used by food manufacturers. The reason is after the acid into the body, normally within 9-15 hours, can generate hippuric acid and glycine effect, from the urine, the remainder of the compound and glucose and detoxification. So it meets the national standards, harmless to human body. Potassium sorbate, the body's normal metabolism, easily decomposed into carbon dioxide and water from the body, so it also meet the national standards, harmless, in animal experiments, confirmed sorbic acid did not cause genotoxic teratogenic and carcinogenic exist. But for those who has poor liver function people. We do not recommend them to use preservatives added energy gel in huge quantity. So please pay attention to those brands which stated that their products are free from preservative but yet it is very obviously that their packing is not able to pass the 130 degree C boil water for 10 minutes.

Basic recipe, although each are similar, that is using monosugar as the basic source of energy supply. But since most manufacturers wants to let players feel their stomach has been fed. Usually they will add a thickener agent, also known as cosmetic modification starch. Just awhile ago, the news report has ignited a food additive is all this thing. How to distinguish? The way is to read product ingredients, if there are ingredients added gelatin, xanthan gum or guar gum and so on, these are the modification starch.
Our RacingPro energy gel is absolutely not add with any thickener agent. What we do is take continuous high temperature after boiling we still keep evaporates moisture to make thickens. So compared to other brands products, our energy gel taste is slightly a little thin, this is because different processes.

The recommended use of an energy gel is 15 minutes before starting and 30-45 minutes after starting the endurance exercise. The first gel prior to exercise may be skipped in favor of a high carbohydrate snack instead. Energy gels are then to be used every 30-45 minutes during exercise. The notch can be peeled off at the top and an intake of energy gel is recommended to be followed with a drink of water to avoid risk of dehydration. The exact intake of the gel varies for every athlete depending on their metabolism, body weight, and fitness level.

The most simple way to calculate how many carbohydrate or calories you need during race is by your weight. In other word, that is depends on how many carbohydrate you need to eat every hour. Which can be divert by calculating your weight. For example, when athlete weight 60 kg, it means he need to use 60 gram Carbohydrates every hour. To keep glucose on the highest level and protect our muscles.